Solidarity features prominently in Sub-Saharan African knowledge systems including in Ubuntu's most common idiom -- Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu: a person is a person through other persons. It is through the mutual recognition of one another, enriching one's humanity through the enrichiment of another's humanity, that one becomes a person.
The right to solidarity is enshrined in the African Charter on Human and People's Rights and other African constitutions. Solidarity rights, also known as group rights, constitute the 3rd generation of human rights and promote collective action in addressing issues such as poverty that affect an individual's ability to feel and live a dignified life.
Ubuntu's main focus is the role that humans should play in maintaining harmony between individuals, and between an individual and society. This derives from Sub-Saharan African spirituality that views reality as an inextricably interconnected whole whose harmony affects the wellbeing of all the parts.
Within ubuntu both the victim and oppressor are entitled to restoration. The oppressor in order to oppress casts away their own humanity, and the humanity of the victim is defiled by being oppressed. As a result, both parties are in need of their humanity to be restored. This is reflected in various Truth and national reconciliation processes in the African continent. Restoration is captured in ubuntu's saying umuntu akalahlwa No one is beyond redemption. When social harmony is broken, ubuntu requires reconciliation.
Equity is a necessary component in solidarity and restorative efforts. Equity is a natural outcome of ubuntu. Ubuntu encourages generosity and addressing inequality in its different forms.
According to Ubuntu every person has a uniqueness that must be recognized and respected for its potential to achieve harmony. This is reflected in the Nguni greeting for "hello" Sawubona We see you: I on behalf of the community see you. Seeing is recognizing the worth and dignity in another. It is the community recognizing itself through the individual.
Ubuntu focuses on how to incorporate and accommodate an individual into the community in ways that do not destroy community. The community is dynamic, it is always evolving and adapting to meet the demands of its members. Individual and Group rights must work together in harmony.